Gaddi Zeynabildin Tagi-oglu (1823-1924), the legendary Azerbaijani millionaire, oilman, economist, an outstanding philanthropist, builder who left a bright mark in the history of culture and education of Azerbaijan. There are two or three different versions of the year of birth, but researchers cite 1823 based on documents. His father, Tagi, was a simple farmer, a shoemaker, and his mother, Ummikhanum, was a housewife. Her mother died when she was little, and her brother Ali remained in a foster family. Ten-year-old Zeynabildin was given by his father as an assistant student to a Mason. At the age of 12, his father received bread and cheese for a penny of a boy carrying clay. As a young man at the age of 20, he had a reputation for work in construction.A few years later he left the business and invested in profit. The business, which began with two stores, grew rapidly thanks to perseverance and hard work. The number of stores has increased. In Iran, several caravans belonged to the palace. Fighting with rivals, he launched a textile factory. He took part in the production of kerosene.
In the 1870s, oil fields were actively developing in the Caucasus. Well-known European entrepreneurs Rothschild and the Nobel dynasties began to build on the Caspian coast and extract oil. Representatives of Azerbaijani nationality did not stand aside: Zeynalabdin Tagiyev, Aga Musa Nagiyev, Muruz Mukhtarov, Shemsi Abdullaev and others. In 1873, Tagiyev, together with two partners, acquired the Bibi-Heybat region and began drilling oil. But the expected source of oil was not found. Leaving for another region, the partners sold their shares to Tagiyev. Every day, working people, conscientious Tolegen Tagiyev continued drilling work. A few years later, the first oil fountain was blown up. “Zeynal, the son of a poor shoemaker” became Tagiyev millionaire!
Tagiyev, developing the oil business, invested in various industries and earned a living. There were dozens of oil and cargo ships. The state leased 300 kilometers off the coast of the Caspian Sea and coordinated fishing. Not a single fish without the Tagiev seal could enter the market. Fishermen praised their work and doubled their salaries. All the fishermen who stood in line waited in line at Tagiyev’s stores to hand over the caught fish. Following the cessation of wildlife trade, fish prices increased by 50%. Refrigerated wagons with fish began to arrive in Russia and Europe. The black caviar shop was open. Thousands of hectares of land were purchased, and forestry was created. In 1882, Z. Tagiev was officially accepted into the merchant guild of the 1st rank. According to 1893, Z. Tagiyev mined 13 million pounds of oil per year. One of the most famous books of that time was an article written by chemist D. Mendeleev about Z. Tagiyev in the oil section of the Brockhaus-Euron Encyclopedic Dictionary.
Tagiyev, no matter how rich the rich billionaires are, cannot compete with the Nobel dynasty. In 1897, the oil industry was sold to British banker E. Gubbard for $ 5 million. He joined the board of directors, receiving not only money, but also shares worth 100,000 pounds (about 1 million rubles).
From 1900 to 1909, textile and cotton mills were opened, employing more than a thousand people on 44 hectares. The fame of cheap but very high-quality fabric spread to all Muslim countries, and not just to Iran and Turkey. Wholesalers are now waiting in line for products that have not yet been released. Competitors repeatedly burned factories and warehouses. But Tagiyev not only quickly restored them, but also intensified his zeal. In 1920, the Bolsheviks captured it and renamed the Lenin Red Plant. The language of Z. Tagiyev was also harsh. “I remember all the major transactions that I have ever made. But when I sold the factory to Lenin, it never occurred to me. ”
There is a saying in the Kazakh language: “A strong person stands on solid ground; Well-being does not end with free people. This is through hard work and perseverance. Tagiev did not remain in the memory of the country. Zeynalabdin Tagiyev remained in the history of not only the Azerbaijani nation, but the entire Muslim world, thanks to his generosity, generosity and generosity to his people and his state. Let’s look at some of the most important examples.
In 1883, he built the Baku Drama Theater. After the burning of religious fanatics in 1909, a new, more magnificent theater was built. Composer Hajibeyov wrote a solemn march to Tagiyev. Each time a patron came to the theater, a march took place, the audience got up and applauded in gratitude. The Baku Musical Comedy Theater is currently home to this home. The Baku community calls the “Tagiyev Theater”.
In 1892, Russia was struck by drought. In combination with hunger, cholera epidemics spread. Traders raised food prices. Z. Tagiyev sent several caravans of camels with wheat and fruits from Baku and distributed them to the sick for free. Four special yards were built in Baku, filled with barley, wheat, rice and flour. Orphans, widows and patients were regularly distributed free of charge. On the whole, Z. Tagiyev built and financed a complex of orphanages, a free-food center, and elementary schools in the complex, wherever he did business. In 1895, he opened a garden school in Mardikyan and continued to cover all expenses. Hundreds of poor people studying in Baku and nearby villages growing fruit trees and flowers, not only adopted their families, but also became famous gardeners. Now in this house students are taught secondary school No. 123.
In 1895, 750,000 rubles were allocated to him for the repair of Baku streets. Mills were built. A fire station was built. Dozens of schools and hospitals, hospitals and pharmacies have been built.
From 1895 to 1901, the Polish architect Joseph Goslawski built a 101-story three-story palace. On the first floor there were offices and receptions, on the second – families, on the third – servants. Construction cost 1.2 million rubles. Furniture, curtains and paintings for the palace were ordered from Germany, Italy and America. The palace now houses the Museum of the History of Azerbaijan.
Z. Tagiyev opened the “Muslim Charity Society” in St. Petersburg. He donated 1,000 rubles for the construction of a mosque in St. Petersburg. He built the school “St. Anna” for Russian girls.
Mosques were built in the Caucasus and Astrakhan. Tehran fully funded the construction of the madrasah.
Since the 1880s he has been publishing the Caspian Newspaper in Russian. The newspaper is printed in Z. Tagiyev’s own printing house. Since 1905, he began to publish the daily Hayat in Azerbaijani. “On June 6, 1905, the entire Baku aristocracy gathered and performed in a solemn prayer mosque. After the prayer, he thanked Z. Tagiyev for his “faithful service to the nation,” says a newspaper article of the time.
In addition to the daily press, Z. Tagiyev helped to publish and distribute books and poets of writers and poets. For example, he published 1,200 copies of the book by N. Narimanov “Nadir Shah”.
In 1899, a German engineer was called to Baku to solve the problem with drinking water, and a water pipe was laid out of 190 km in Baku. All expenses were paid by Tagiyev. Baku residents still benefit from this.
In 1901, he built a “Closed boarding school for Muslim girls” worth 300,000 rubles. The school had the richest library in the city. Here are some of the best books from East and West. Talented girls were enrolled in this school for free. Classes lasted six days a week. Food, clothes and all expenses of the girls were carried by Tagiyev. She also taught her daughters at this school so that people would not worry. In 1913, the boarding house was expanded and became the “Teacher’s Seminar for Muslim Girls.” At the beginning of the 20th century, the most educated teachers in Azerbaijan were graduates of this school. “By raising one son, you get a well-educated citizen. If you raise a girl, you will get a well-educated family, ”Z. Tagiyev said. By 1915, there were five women’s schools in the city. The seminary was closed in 1918 by the Bolsheviks. At present, the Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences is located at this place.
Z. Tagiyev made a significant contribution to the training of national personnel necessary for the prosperity of his country. He is an oilman, doctor, lawyer, economist, railwayman, politician, etc. Scholarships were paid to young people who study the most important specialties not only in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, but also in the best universities in Europe. After graduation, they had a preliminary agreement with all students so that he would not leave for other countries, forgetting about his own. Highly qualified specialists returned home and worked closely with people. Is it not natural that hundreds of educated young people rise in the history of the nation, intellectuals, future scientists, writers, ministers. For example, such figures as Nariman Narimanov, Hasanbek Agayev, Aziz Aliyev were educated with the help of Z. Tagiyev. Z. Tagiyev also attended the opening of the Baku Polytechnic Institute and invited famous professors to the lecture. They paid travel expenses and salaries.
Z. Tagiyev helped people of all nationalities and religions. In 1900, he was awarded the title of honorary citizen of Baku. Muslim, Jewish, Russian and Armenian charitable organizations in the city unanimously recognized him as honorary chairman. By decree of Nicholas II, Z. Tagiyev was awarded the title of state adviser (general).
In 1901, Mirmuhammed, with the official permission of Baghdad, translated the Quran into the Azerbaijani language. He published a book in Arabic with Arabic letters and distributed it free of charge in mosques and madrassas.
In 1914, at the initiative of large merchants, the Baku Trade Bank was opened. Z. Tagiyev was unanimously elected chairman of the board. She provided financial support and advice to young people who are interested in doing business that benefits the country.
Z. Tagiev proposed to the Bolsheviks, who came to power in 1918, a plan to restore the country’s economy. They accepted the plan, but they failed to implement it.
In 1920, the Bolsheviks seized all of Tagiyev’s property. However, he was offered a house for his contribution, honor and merit. And then Z. Tagiyev told his children: “Take only the right clothes with you and let all the other things be left to the people.” He died on September 1, 1924 in a house in the village of Mardikyan. He was buried at the foot of Akhun Abuturab, an outstanding religious figure and scholar. A beautiful tombstone was demolished by the Communists in the 1950s. In 1989, a memorial tombstone was laid on the Azerbaijani grave.
In the Bolshevik tradition, the families and descendants of a millionaire were harassed, deported, and imprisoned. The second wife of Z. Tagiyeva Sona (Sofia) Tagiyeva died of starvation in 1932. And this is not all the things that the Communists mixed up with. According to the researchers, the public charity work of Z. Tagiyev cost more than a million dollars in gold. Judging by the current system, this is a huge billion dollars. Among his contemporaries there were rich who would take Tagiyev ten times. But there are no reports that Zeynalabdin spent a lot on charity such as Hajj. Knowing the consequences of poverty and orphanhood since childhood, Hajj Zeynalabdin honestly paid salaries to his employees. They created the best conditions for their children, sent them to education, training. As a millionaire, he turned one of the large rooms into a safe. In this room hung his little ax, which has been preserved since childhood. Apparently, he avoided so much greed, which was revived on the basis of wealth. That is why the Azerbaijani people call it “el-otashi”, that is, the ancestor of the Azerbaijani people. The man who conquered wealth did this in the Turkic world and even in the history of all Muslims.
Postscript On March 2, 2019, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev met with cultural and art workers. The artist Bahram Bagirzadeh reported to the president that millions of citizens requested “to erect a monument to the famous Tagiyev in Baku”. The president said that he supported this idea and said: “My grandfather, Aziz Aliyev, studied at the St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy. Z. Tagiyev fully paid for the training. He read a letter from a stranger whom he had never seen, and asked for help, but agreed to pay for it. Patronage paved the way for a better life for thousands of young people, such as my grandfather. Such great people should erect a monument. “That is, in Baku you can build a monument to a famous person who in the near future will grow from an orphan to a national origin, who has devoted all his education, education and the health of the nation.
Aishuak Darmenovich, historian.