Mөr (seal) is a Persian word. In Turkey it was called “tamga”. The seal was used to confirm a letter, message, legal document or any permission. It is difficult to say exactly when the seal appeared. Archaeologists still find stamps made of bone, ceramics, bronze and iron and their prints on gold, silver, tin and paper. Impressions from ancient Sumer, Egypt and Byzantium are found on ceramic plates. History as a science consists of more than thirty directions. One of them is the direction of studying the history of prints, such as phragistics (Greek Σφραγις – seal) or sigillography (Latin Sigillum – seal). Initially, these directions were a fundamental part of science to determine whether historical documents are genuine or fake. Over time, they were separated from the basic part of the history of ancient and medieval civilization and became separate historical disciplines due to the numerous discoveries of iron and ceramic seals. Thus, these areas have become an independent scientific field, such as heraldry (study of emblems), epigraphy or epigraphy (study of ancient writing), epitaph (writing on gravestones or apocrypha), emblem (study of symbols), onomastics (study of the names of land and water )
The seal is noted in many historical events. So the Egyptian pharaoh gave the throne to Joseph, putting the mark of his seal on his hand. There are legends about the Solomon seal ring, which bore the philosophical phrase “Everything will pass.” And when Solomon once threw off the seal in anger, he found on the inside of the ring the inscription “And this too will pass”. Meanwhile, this seal ring bore the symbol of the monarchy of power. And according to the same legend, after Solomon lost the ring, no one else obeyed him.
On the territory of Kazakhstan, the Scythian-Saka tribes that lived in the Iron Age also used seals. The gold man, found in the Issyk barrows, wore a seal ring on his right hand. Archaeologists led by academician. U. Shalekenov discovered several rings-seals in the Taraz region that were used by the Halkin tribes (Khalkha-Mongols). There is a copy of the seal of Khoja Ahmed Yassawi. It was made of wood with a diameter of 11.5 cm. This copy was used as an amulet for travelers. In the center of the press there is the inscription “Sultan Khoja Ahmed Yasawi”, and around the leaves – “Sheikh Ahmet Ravande, Sheikh Ahmet Jami, Sheikh Ahmet Marjan, Sheikh Ahmet Kabir, Sheikh Ahmet Arkam, Sheikh Ahmet Sakhkhak, Sheikh Ahmet Harb, … (not read in full) , Sheikh Ahmet Marsal. ” This is the only print thus preserved of one of the ancient seals bearing the name of the Blessed Sultan.
The seal is a symbol of power and kind. The Turks have a saying: “He who has a seal is Solomon.” The 11th-century poem, Joseph Balasagun’s poem “Kutti Bilik”, mentions that each nominee received a seal, flag, insignia and rifle when they were appointed governors of Aitolmysh and Udulmysh. The 45-volume edition of the Islamic Encyclopedia (Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı “Islam” ansiklopedisi), published in Turkey, has been carefully studied for its seals. Islamic tradition says that the wearing of the ring begins with the Prophet Muhammad, and then the four Caliphs wear the seal ring. This is followed by references to the use of seals in the clergy, used by ishana and Sikhs in Muslim countries (Islam Ansiklopedisi, Istanbul: Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, 2006. 31.cilt, 530-531). Seals changed depending on the function and level of power of their owners. For example, there are types of seals of governors, official seals, personal seals and stamps for official permits. “The seal of the clergy is a personal seal,” says Mukhit Tulegen, Ph.D., a specialist in religious studies, who speaks good Arabic and Turkish.
The front part of the seal bore the inscription:
Muhammad (S.Ғ.S.) (Prophet of the Most High) – Muhammad Alayһisalam
On the verge of the ring – N’’mәl қadir Allaһ (Almighty Allah is the most powerful)
Also on the front of the seal-ring of Hazareth Umar there is an inscription – Kәfa bil mәut waizan (Death is the best preacher). Such an inscription shows a death reminder to the owner 20 times a day.
On the front of the seal of the Ottoman Khazareth the inscription – Лә нәсбираннә (Obviously we are calm)
On the seal of Elidin Khazareth the inscription – Әл мулку лайлл (Property belongs to Allah)
On the seal of Imam Agzam Abu Hanifa the inscription – Қul-il khayr uә illa fлаskut (Speak well or do not speak)
The seals affixed by the Kazakh khans Az Tauke, Abylkair Khan, Abylay Khan, Kenesary Khan, Bokei Khan, Zhangir Khan, Aryngazy Khan, Syrym, Isatay and Makhambet are numerous in archival documents. The royal seal was in the shape of a drop called the “bird’s beak”, mainly made of silver and worn on the thumb of the right hand. Seals of rich people and award seals were made in the form of a circle or a shield. The seal contained the name, surname, patronymic and status of the owner. The seals used the black, blue, and red mascara of the Khans and the Sultans finished the letter as “I am putting my seal to witness what I wrote.” Krymbek Alshynbekov, an experienced jeweler from Almaty, reconstructed facsimiles printed on archival records by the aforementioned historical figures.
Religious representatives living in the Kazakh steppe also sealed their letters, for example, Arystan-Bab and Khoja Ahmed Yassaui. At the end of the correspondence, various messages to the religious center, the seal was recreated. Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Professor Mambet Koigeldiev wrote: “Ishan is a highly educated teacher who learned the truth in the Sufi sketch of Islam.” In Central Asia, the title “ishan” was mainly given to the clergy of the clan. In addition, people from all Kazakh ethnic groups who received education and have dedicated their lives to religion, also received the title of Ishan. There are records with prints of seals of Doszhan Ishan, Maral Ishan, Altai Ishan, Edige Ishan, Amangali Akhuna, who lived in different regions of Kazakhstan in the 19th century.
Doszhan Kashak-uly (1815-1890) received an initial religious education from his father, Kashak Mulla. Then he studied for about ten years and graduated from the Orenburg Madrasah. He further studies in Bukhara and Khiva in order to improve his education. At sixteen he went on a pilgrimage for the first time, and at seventeen he returned safely. At the age of seventeen, he received the title of Ishan. For an excellent reading, the teachers gave him a golden seal, similar to a necklace on his neck. Doszhan Ishan continued to improve his education throughout his life. He visited Bukhara, Khiva, Samarkand, Turkestan. Thrice made a pilgrimage and visited Turkey and the Arab countries, talked with scientists. He taught for over 50 years and raised more than 2,000 students. After receiving a degree, he was awarded a stamped silver ring. The seal reads: “Believer only to Allah, Dosmuhammad ibn Molla Kashak 1248” (hijri). This seal is now in private hands. It seems that the buyer intends to sell. This information was published on the Kazinform website on June 10, 2017. “We cannot get the seal of Dosjan. One resident was provided with a copy of the seal – a wooden seal on his father – Kashak Ishan. The original was not provided to anyone. The copy was estimated at 1 million tenge. “It’s expensive,” said Nurbol Kuanbaev, an employee of the Temir District Museum. Is it the wooden seal of the father or the silver seal of ishan, which is in his own hands? Where did this seal come from? Did you buy this? Or the descendants of the Bolsheviks who robbed mosques and houses? Allah knows the truth, we passed it on everyone’s conscience.
Askar Khabibullin collected several surviving prints on the paper of this seal and ordered the production to the jeweler Arsen Khazaryan. The jeweler made the exact silver facsimile of the seal. Ishan’s legacy was replenished with some more exhibits. Now there is the Quran, the seal and the jug.
Museum of Local Lore – a worthy place of valuable exhibits. The spiritual world of a historical person is thousands of times higher than the greed of an individual person.
Aishuak Darmenuly, historian
Loss of Solomon’s ring
During the reign of Solomon, once a day, his entire retinue praised him. Once again, when the king heard praise, he wondered if there was any power superior to me.
Once, when Solomon was washing his hands on the river, he dropped the ring. He called the fish and said:
Hey fish, give me my ring. The fish swims and finds a ring. At that moment, Great Allah said to the fish:
“Don’t give the ring,” he orders. The fish obeys the command and swallows the ring. Solomon is waiting and waiting. And without waiting, he returns to the palace. At the gate, the guards do not open the door. Solomon yells:
“It’s me, Solomon, king of the world.” Open the door!
The guard does not open. The guard was a gin named Akik. He went to Solomon and said:
“Oh, Solomon, you subjugated us to your ring, not to yourself. You have no power without a ring. ” Solomon stays behind the wall. He is hungry and thirsty. He has nothing with him, he is a beggar. Whoever comes home, no one gives him a piece of bread.
Solomon began to regret that there are privileges and separation of people in the world.
Once upon a time, Solomon burned a witch and scattered her ashes. Mosquitoes appeared from the ashes. And Solomon walked along the road and a swarm of mosquitoes attacked him. Solomon, in horror, hid under a tree. And he would have died from their bites, if not for the swallow that soared from the tree and drove the mosquitoes away.
It began to rain, and Solomon was finally able to quench his thirst. The wind blew and cooled his body. And after the rain, a rainbow appeared over the field.
Grandfather the shepherd watched all this and said to himself – “A very difficult and interesting person. We need to take it with you. ” And he called Solomon to his house.
Once, a grandfather shepherd began to fish. And he caught as big as he had never caught. And Solomon asked to clean this fish. And when Solomon opened her belly, he found his ring there. He put it on his finger and threw up his hands praising Allah.
So Allah experienced Solomon. And since then words have been heard around the world, “With a ring you are Solomon, without a ring you are emptiness”
From the book “ Әлдиден эпосқа дейін“